Top 20 Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2024

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Introduction

For both newbies and seasoned developers, selecting the best programming language to learn may be a crucial choice in the ever changing world of technology. Programming continues to advance as 2024 progresses, with the introduction of cutting-edge languages that support a range of domains and applications. The variety of possibilities available might seem both thrilling and intimidating, depending on whether you're thinking of slick mobile applications, strong online platforms, complex AI systems, or effective software solutions.

We'll look at 20 programming languages in this article that have attracted attention for their adaptability, popularity, and usefulness in 2024. You'll get essential insights into the dynamic programming environment by exploring the particular advantages and uses of each language. This will enable you to make wise decisions as you start your coding career in this exciting year.

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is a vocabulary and grammar set used to give instructions to a computer or other computing equipment so that they may carry out particular activities. Machine programmes, which are collections of instructions that tells a machine what to perform, are made using programming languages.

Programming languages come in a wide variety, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript are a few of the most well-known programming languages.

Many different applications employ programming languages, including:

  • Software Development
  • Web Development
  • Mobile App Development
  • Data Science
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Scientific Computing

Types of Programming Languages

Based on their traits, features, and intended applications, programming languages may be divided into a variety of categories. Instances of several popular programming languages are listed below:

1. Procedural Programming Languages

The definition of routines or procedures to carry out tasks inside a programme is the main focus of procedural programming languages, a subset of programming languages. When developing procedural code, the focus is on creating a set of organised processes or functions that modify data and carry out tasks. These programming languages have a linear flow of control, where the programme is executed in a set of steps, and data is generally kept in variables that may be changed by procedures.

2. Functional Programming Languages

The idea of approaching computing as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoiding altering state and changeable data is the foundation of functional programming languages, a subset of computer languages. Functions are recognised as first-class citizens in functional programming, which entitles them to the same treatment as other data types in terms of handling and passing them around. This paradigm promotes declarative, condensed, and immutable code writing.

3. Object-oriented Programming Languages

The idea of classifying code and data into objects, which are instances of classes, is at the heart of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages, a subset of computer languages. OOP promotes designing computer programmes so that they closely resemble the things and relationships found in the real world. Complex software systems may be managed and maintained more easily because to this paradigm, which encourages modularity, reusability, and encapsulation.

4. Scripting Languages

A category of programming languages that are interpreted rather than compiled are scripting languages. This implies that instead of being transformed into machine code all at once before they are run, they are turned into machine code one line at a time. Creating online apps and automating operations both frequently employ scripting languages. In addition, they are utilised in multimedia, gaming, and system administration.

Here are some of the scripting languages:

  • Python: Python is a high-level, multipurpose programming language. It is renowned for its clarity, readability, and powerful libraries. Python is frequently used for web development, data research, machine learning, and artificial intelligence.
  • Perl: Perl is a high-level, all-purpose, dynamic programming language that is interpreted. It is renowned for its potent text processing powers as well as its rapid and simple data manipulation capabilities. System management, web development, and data analysis frequently employ Perl.
  • Bash: Bash is a Unix shell scripting language used for system management and automation. It is a strong language that may be used for a range of activities.

5. Logic Programming Languages

Declarative programming and symbolic reasoning are the main areas of emphasis for logic programming languages. On the basis of formal logic and rules, these languages are used to express and resolve issues. Tasks involving knowledge representation, inference, and rule-based systems are particularly well suited for logic programming languages.

6. Imperative Programming

Imperative programming is a paradigm for computer programming that places an emphasis on providing the computer precise instructions on how to carry out a series of actions or activities. Using control structures like loops and conditional statements, an imperative programme is made up of a series of statements that alter variables, carry out computations, and regulate how the programme is executed.

Alternative Methods of Categorizing Programming Languages

A variety of distinct approaches that highlight various facets of a programming language's design, features, and use cases can be used to classify programming languages. Alternative methods of classifying programming languages are listed below:

1. Front-end vs Back-end Languages

The majority of front-end languages are interpreted, which means that as they are executed, each line is translated into machine code. They are slower than compiled languages as a result, but they are also simpler to troubleshoot. Before being run, back-end languages are often compiled, which means they are translated into machine code all at once. As a result, they are quicker than interpreted languages, but they are also more challenging to debug.

User experience is often the main emphasis of front-end languages. They are made to look attractive and be simple to use. Performance, security, and scalability are often the three main goals of back-end languages. They are made to be effective and safeguard information from unauthorised access. The precise requirements of the software application being built determine the front-end and back-end languages that should be used. A web application that has to process a lot of data would use a back-end language like Java, but one that needs a lot of visual effects might use a front-end language like JavaScript.

2. High-level vs Low-level Languages

Programming languages fall into two distinct groups based on the degree of abstraction they provide: High-level and Low-level.

High-level languages are designed to be simple to read and write for people. To express ideas like variables, loops, and functions, they employ language-like syntax and keywords. Machine code, the language that computers can comprehend, is often created by compiling high-level languages.

Low-level languages are intended to be as near to computer machine code as possible. To represent data and instructions, they employ binary digits (bits). Although low-level languages are frequently more effective, they are generally harder for people to comprehend and write than high-level languages.

3. Interpreted vs. Compiled Languages

Programming languages may be divided into two categories based on how the computer interprets and executes them. These categories are called compiled and interpreted languages. During execution, each line of interpreted languages is translated into machine code. Compared to compiled languages, they are slower as a result, but they are also simpler to troubleshoot.

Prior to execution, compiled languages undergo a one-time conversion into machine code. Compared to interpreted languages, they are quicker as a result, but they are also more challenging to debug. The particular requirements of the project being created will determine whether to choose an interpreted or compiled language. For instance, a video game that needs excellent speed would use a compiled language like C++, but a web site that needs a lot of dynamic content might use an interpreted language like Python.

What Programming Language Should You Learn?

The list of popular and in-demand programming languages in 2024 is extensive; here are only a handful of them. Your interests and objectives will determine which language is ideal for you to learn. If you're unsure which language to start with, I suggest Python or JavaScript. Both languages have a wide range of applications and are very simple to learn.

The following are some more elements to take into account while selecting a programming language:

  • Your desired projects: Different languages are more appropriate for various project kinds than others. For instance, C++ is a strong choice for creating operating systems and embedded systems, but Python is a solid choice for data science and machine learning applications.
  • Your current skill level is: Learning a language might be challenging in several cases. I advise beginning with a language that is very simple to learn if you are a newbie, such as Python or JavaScript.
  • The possible career options are: More people speak certain languages than others. Find out which languages are most in demand in the sector you are interested in if you have a particular job in mind.

What Are the Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2024?

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is a simple, interpreted, object-oriented programming language that is used to provide interactivity to web pages. Along with HTML and CSS, it is one of the three fundamental technologies of the World Wide Web (WWW). Interactive web page elements like animated menus, pop-up windows, and scrolling text are made with JavaScript. Additionally, it may be used to compute mathematical equations, check user input, and work with the DOM (Document Object Model).

A JavaScript developer makes an average yearly pay of $1,07,510. The median income for the bottom 10% of workers is $69,000, while the highest 10% of earners earns $1,63,330 or more.

A few advantages of JavaScript include:

  • Learning JavaScript is not very difficult. You may find a wide variety of online resources, including tutorials, classes, and books, to assist you in learning JavaScript.
  • JavaScript is the most widely utilised programming language worldwide. As a result, there is a sizable community of JavaScript developers and a vast selection of JavaScript libraries and frameworks are readily available.
  • JavaScript is versatile and may be used for a number of different tasks. This makes it a sensible option for a range of applications.
  • JavaScript code is portable and may be used on a wide range of platforms, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices. Because of this, it is a suitable option for cross-platform programming.

JavaScript also has several drawbacks, such as:

  • Performance: Compared to certain other programming languages, such C++ or Java, JavaScript is not as quick. For some applications, this can be an issue.
  • Security: Security breaches are possible with JavaScript. This is because malevolent users may alter JavaScript code because it can be run on the client-side.
  • Complexity: JavaScript is a potentially challenging language, particularly for new users. Learning and using it may be challenging as a result.

Properties of JavaScript are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Dynamically TypedA variable's data type is not defined explicitly. A variable's value can be used to deduce the data type of the variable.
2.Object-Oriented ProgrammingObject-oriented programming is supported by JavaScript. This enables programmers to write reusable code and logically organise their code.
3.FunctionsBlocks of code that may be reused are called functions. The JavaScript code allows for the definition and calling of functions.
4.ObjectsData structures called objects can have both data and methods. Objects can be used to represent things in the actual world, such people, vehicles, and homes.
5.Regular expressionsText matching may be done using regular expressions, which are patterns. To check user input, extract data from text, and carry out additional operations, regular expressions can be utilised.

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2. Python

Python is a high-level, all-purpose programming language. One of the most widely used programming languages in the world, it is employed in a wide range of projects. Python is renowned for having simple, unambiguous syntax that is simple to understand and write. Additionally, because it is dynamically typed, you are not need to define the kinds of variables in advance. Python code is now more adaptable and simpler to create as a result.

Depending on the region, level of experience, and set of talents, Python coders make a variety of salaries. The average annual income for a Python developer in the US is $1,16,167. A Python coder in India makes, on average, ₹40,00,000 a year.

The following are some advantages of using Python:

  • Python is a language that is comparatively simple to learn. You may learn Python from a variety of online resources, including tutorials, classes, and books.
  • Python is among the most widely used programming languages in the world. This demonstrates the sizeable development community for Python and the variety of Python libraries and frameworks that are readily available.
  • Python is a versatile language that can be used for many different tasks. It is a wonderful option for a range of applications because of this.
  • Python code is portable, meaning it may be used on a wide range of operating systems, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices. It is a fantastic option for cross-platform programming because of this.

Using Python has various drawbacks, which are listed below:

  • Python does not run as quickly as certain other programming languages, including C++ or Java. Some applications may have issues with this.
  • Python has the potential to use a lot of memory. Applications that require memory efficiency may have an issue with this.
  • Python may be a challenging language for beginners, especially in terms of complexity. Because of this, learning and using it may be challenging.

Properties of Python are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.General-PurposePython can be used for a variety of tasks.
2.High-levelDue to the fact that Python is a high-level language, it is more analogous to human language than to machine language.
3.Object-oriented ProgrammingPython supports object-oriented programming. This allows programmers to create reusable code and to structure their code in a logical way.
4.Dynamically TypedVariables do not explicitly specify their data types. A variable's value serves as an indication of the data type of the variable.
5.Free and Open SourcePython is a free and open-source language. This means that it is available to everyone to use and modify.

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3. Java

Java is a general-purpose, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is intended to have fewer implementation requirements. It is an interpreted language, not a compiled one. Java code is not directly executed by the processor; instead, it is first translated into bytecode and then run by the Java Virtual processor (JVM). Java may now operate on any computer that has a JVM installed, making it platform-independent. Java is renowned for being straightforward, object-oriented, and cross-platform. A lot of important apps have been created using it since it is also incredibly secure.

Depending on the region, level of experience, and set of talents, Java developers make a variety of salaries. The average annual income for a Java developer in the US is $1,01,384. A Java developer makes an average of ₹5,30,000 a year in India.

The following are some advantages of using Java:

  • The ability to run Java code on any platform using a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is known as portability. Java code may be turned into bytecode. Java code is extremely portable as a result.
  • Security was a priority in the design of Java. Applications can be shielded against security flaws with the aid of technologies like bytecode verification and sandboxing.
  • The robust language Java was created to be fault-tolerant and dependable. It offers features that help reduce mistakes and crashes, including as garbage collection and exception handling.
  • Application development for high-performance apps may be done using Java, a high-performance language.
  • Java is an extensible language that enables programmers to build custom libraries and extensions.

Using Java has various drawbacks, which are listed below:

  • Java programmes often take a long time to launch, especially on older computers.
  • Java programmes can consume a lot of memory, particularly if they are poorly built.
  • Garbage collection: When used in lengthy applications, garbage collection can occasionally result in performance issues.
  • Java is a type-safe language, which enables compile-time error detection. However, this occasionally results in more verbose Java code.

Properties of Java are given in table below:*

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Object-OrientedJava is an object-oriented programming language, which implies that the idea of objects serves as its foundation. Data and code are housed into objects, which may communicate with one another.
2.Platform-IndependentAny platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can run Java code once it has been converted to bytecode. Java code is extremely portable as a result.
3.SecureJava is designed with security in mind. It has features such as bytecode verification and sandboxing that help to protect applications from security vulnerabilities.
4.MultithreadedJava provides multithreading, which enables the execution of several tasks at once. Java is hence a good choice for creating apps that need high performance.
5.DistributedJava is a distributed language that facilitates the creation of applications that may be installed on several computers. Java is hence a good choice for building corporate apps.

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4. Go

Go is a general-purpose programming language created by Google that is compiled and statically typed. It is made with simplicity, dependability, and efficiency in mind. Though Go is a relatively young language, it has already become well-liked among programmers. The straightforward and short syntax of Go is well regarded for making it simple to learn and use. It is a great language for creating high-performance applications since it is also incredibly efficient. With a built-in garbage collector and memory safety mechanisms, Go is a very dependable language.

Depending on their location, level of expertise, and skill set, Go developers make a variety of salaries. The average annual pay for a Go developer in the US is $1,68,128 . A Go developer in India makes, on average, ₹7,00,000 a year.

The following are some advantages of utilising Go:

  • Go is a straightforward language that is simple to learn and use. Compared to other programming languages like Java or C++, there are less words and ideas to master.
  • Go is a strong option for creating apps that need to manage a lot of requests since it supports concurrency.
  • Both in terms of memory use and execution speed, Go is intended to be efficient. This makes it a suitable option for creating scalable applications.
  • The Go development community is vast and vibrant. This indicates that there are a variety of tools at your disposal to study Go and create Go apps.

The following are a few drawbacks to using Go:

  • Go is a relatively young language, and as a result, it is not as developed as languages like Java or C++. As a result, Go is supported by fewer libraries and frameworks.
  • Not as effective for all tasks as other languages: Go is not as effective for all tasks as other languages. For instance, Go is not as effective as Java or C++ in creating graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Properties of Go are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Statically TypedVariables specifically state what data type they are. Coding will become more legible as a result, helping to reduce mistakes.
2.CompiledSince Go programming is compiled into machine code, it can be run more quickly than code written in interpreted languages.
3.ConcurrencyConcurrency in Go enables the execution of numerous tasks concurrently. Applications that need to handle a lot of requests may run better as a result.
4.EfficiencyBoth in terms of memory use and execution speed, Go is made to be efficient. This makes it a suitable option for creating scalable applications.

5. PHP

PHP is a server-side scripting language that is used to develop dynamic and interactive web sites. Millions of websites and web apps utilise it, making it one of the most widely used programming languages in the world. With its strength and adaptability, PHP may be utilised for a wide range of jobs. It is a fantastic language for learning, and it can be used by seasoned developers to create robust applications.

The average salary of PHP developers varies depending on location, experience, and skills. The average salary for a PHP developer in the United States is $86,680 per year. In India, the average salary for a PHP developer is ₹3,00,000 per year.

The following are some advantages of utilising PHP:

  • One of the most widely used programming languages worldwide is PHP. This demonstrates the sizeable development community for PHP and the variety of PHP libraries and frameworks that are now available.
  • PHP is a language that is comparatively simple to learn. You may learn PHP from a variety of online resources, including tutorials, classes, and books.
  • PHP is a versatile language that can be applied to many different jobs. It is a wonderful option for a range of applications because of this.
  • PHP code is portable and may be used on many different operating systems, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices. It is a fantastic option for cross-platform programming because of this.

The following are some drawbacks of using PHP:

  • Performance: Compared to certain other programming languages, such C++ or Java, PHP is not as quick. For some applications, this can be an issue.
  • Security: PHP has a track record of having security flaws. You should be aware of this while creating PHP apps.
  • Complexity: For newcomers, PHP can be a challenging language. Learning and using it may be challenging as a result.

Properties of PHP are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Server-Side ScriptingPrior to sending PHP to the client, the server executes it. Because you can generate dynamic, non-static web pages using it, it is perfect for web development.
2.Object-Oriented ProgrammingProgramming in an object-oriented manner is supported by PHP. This enables you to organise your code logically and to write reuseable code.
3.Database ConnectivityThe ability to connect to databases is built into PHP. This makes using and manipulating data from a database simple.
4.SecurityNumerous security mechanisms are integrated into PHP. This aids in guarding against harmful assaults on your applications.

6. C#

Microsoft created the general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language C# (pronounced "C sharp"). One of the most widely used programming languages worldwide, it saw its initial release in 2002. Because C# is a statically typed, compiled language, any flaws in the code are verified before execution. As an object-oriented language, it organises code into objects that communicate with one another.

The average salary of C# developers varies depending on location, experience, and skills. The average salary for a C# developer in the United States is $1,12,065 per year. In India, the average salary for a C# developer is ₹4,00,000 per year.

The following are some advantages of utilising C#:

  • Performance: Because C# code is turned into machine code, it may be run more quickly than code written in interpreted languages. It's a wonderful option for creating high-performance apps because of this.
  • Range: A wide range of platforms, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices, can run C# code. It is a fantastic option for cross-platform programming because of this.
  • Flexibility: The C# programming language is adaptable and may be utilised for a wide range of applications. It is a wonderful option for a range of applications because of this.
  • Support: Microsoft offers comprehensive C# support, including tools, documentation, and debugging assistance.

The following are some drawbacks of using C#:

  • C# may be a difficult language to learn, particularly for novices. Learning and using it may be challenging as a result.
  • Compared to certain other programming languages, such Python or Java, C# is not as well-known. As a result, there aren't as many libraries and frameworks for C#.

Properties of C# are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Statically TypedThe data type of a variable is declared explicitly. This can help to prevent errors and make code more readable.
2.CompiledBecause C# code is turned into machine code, it can be run more quickly than code written in interpreted languages.
3.GenericsGenerics are supported in C# and let you write code that can work with a variety of types. This might increase the flexibility and reuse of your code.
4.Asynchronous ProgrammingYou can run code in the background while your application is still running in the foreground thanks to C#'s support for asynchronous programming. This might enhance your application's responsiveness.

7. Lua

Lua is a compact, dynamically typed programming language primarily intended for embedded applications. It is frequently employed for general-purpose programming as well as scripting in games and other applications. With a limited set of keywords and an easy-to-understand syntax, Lua is a fairly simple language to learn. Additionally, it is incredibly effective, making it an excellent option for embedded applications with constrained memory and CPU resources. Despite its simplicity, Lua is a strong language.

Depending on the region, level of expertise, and set of talents, Lua developers make a variety of salaries. The average annual pay for a Lua developer in the US is $98,636. A Lua developer makes an average of ₹3,50,000 per year in India.

The following are some advantages of utilising Lua:

  • Simplicity: Lua is a reasonably simple language to learn and use. You may learn Lua through a variety of online resources, including tutorials, classes, and books.
  • Flexibility: There are many different jobs that may be performed using the Lua language. It is a wonderful option for a range of applications because of this.
  • Portability: Lua code is suitable for cross-platform development since it can be executed on a number of different systems.
  • Extensible: Lua may be expanded with new functions and libraries since it is extensible. Because of this, it's a wonderful option for creating unique apps.

Here are a few drawbacks to using Lua:

  • Lua does not execute as quickly as certain other compiled languages, such C++ or Java. For some applications, this might be an issue.
  • Lua is less secure than several other languages, including Java, in terms of security. This is due to the fact that Lua code may be run on the client-side, making it vulnerable to manipulation by unscrupulous users.
  • Lua may be a challenging language to learn, particularly for novices. It may be challenging to use and learn as a result.

Properties of Lua are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.InterpretedWhen Lua code is executed, it is not first translated into machine code. Instead, the Lua interpreter reads it line by line and translates it.
2.Multi-ParadigmProgramming styles including procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming are all supported by Lua.
3.ExtensibleBecause Lua is expandable, new functions and libraries may be added to it.
4.PortableVarious systems, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices, may run Lua code.

8. Ruby

Yukihiro Matsumoto developed Ruby in 1995. It is called after the powerful and beautiful ruby gemstone. Many major corporations, like Airbnb, GitHub, and Shopify, employ the highly popular language Ruby. Ruby is a fairly expressive language with a syntax that is intended to be simple to understand and write. It is also a highly strong language, with a sizable standard library and a thriving development community. Because it is simple to understand and use, Ruby is a wonderful language for beginners.

Ruby developers make a variety of salaries depending on their experience, location, and talents. The average annual income for a Ruby developer in the US is $1,27,500. A Ruby developer makes an average of ₹4,50,000 a year in India.

The following are some advantages of using Ruby:

  • Ruby is a reasonably simple language to learn and use. You may learn Ruby using a variety of online resources, including tutorials, classes, and books.
  • Ruby's syntax is incredibly expressive, which makes it simple to develop code that is both clear and readable.
  • Ruby is an incredibly productive language. This implies that you can produce a significant quantity of code quickly.
  • Ruby is a versatile language that may be used for many different tasks. It is a wonderful option for a range of applications because of this.

The following are some drawbacks of using Ruby:

  • Ruby is slower than several other compiled languages, such C++ or Java, in terms of speed. For some applications, this can be an issue.
  • Ruby may be a difficult language to learn, especially for novices. Learning and using it may be challenging as a result.
  • Compared to some other languages, including Java, Ruby is less secure. This is due to the fact that Ruby code may be run on the client-side, making it vulnerable to manipulation by malevolent users.

Properties of Ruby are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Dynamically TypedVariables do not explicitly specify their data types. As a result, Ruby code is shorter and simpler to understand.
2.InterpretedPrior to execution, machine code is not compiled into Ruby code. The Ruby interpreter, on the other hand, reads it line by line.
3.Object-Oriented ProgrammingObject-oriented programming is supported in Ruby. This enables you to organise your code logically and to write reuseable code.
4.MetaprogrammingRuby has metaprogramming capabilities. As a result, you may create code that produces code.
5.Functional ProgrammingProgramming using Ruby is functional. This is a paradigm for programming that places a strong emphasis on using functions and immutable data structures.

9. Dart

Dart is a client-optimized, open-source programming language for quick development. It can be interoperated with JavaScript and is meant to be converted to native code for excellent speed, enabling the development of apps for both the web and mobile platforms. The Google Dart team is presently responsible for maintaining Dart, which was developed by Google in 2011. Because it is a statically typed language, compile time knowledge of the type of data is possible.

Location, experience, and competence are all factors that affect the average compensation of Dart developers. A Dart developer in the US makes an average yearly pay of $1,04,840. A Dart developer in India makes an average yearly income of ₹3,50,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Dart:

  • Dart code is compiled into machine code, which allows it to be run more quickly than interpreted languages. This makes it an excellent alternative for creating high-performance applications.
  • Dart code is portable because it can operate on a range of platforms, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and mobile devices. As a result, it is an excellent solution for cross-platform programming.
  • Dart is a versatile language that may be used for a wide range of activities. As a result, it is suitable for a wide range of tasks.
  • Dart developers are forming a thriving community. This implies that there are several resources accessible to assist you in learning Dart and developing Dart apps.

Here are some disadvantages to using Dart:

  • Dart is not as well-known as other programming languages like Java or Python. This implies that Dart has fewer libraries and frameworks available.
  • Dart is a relatively young language, and it is not as developed as some other languages, such as Java or C#. This implies that there are fewer characteristics and that the language may evolve.

Properties of Dart are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Statically TypedA variable's data type is specified directly. This can assist in mistake prevention and code readability.
2.CompiledDart code is compiled into machine code, so it may be run faster than interpreted languages.
3.Object-Oriented ProgrammingDart is an object-oriented programming language. This enables you to write reusable code and organise it logically.
4.Asynchronous ProgrammingDart offers asynchronous programming, which allows you to run code in the background while your application runs in the foreground. This can increase the responsiveness of your application.
5.Hot ReloadDart enables hot reloading, which allows you to modify your code while your application is running. This can save you a significant amount of time while troubleshooting your code.

10. Kotlin

Kotlin is a statically typed, open-source programming language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It is intended to be brief, safe, and expressive. Kotlin is Java-compatible and may be used to create both Android and server-side apps. JetBrains invented Kotlin in 2010 and it is still maintained by the JetBrains Kotlin team. It is a popular language used by several huge corporations, like Google, Uber, and Netflix.

The average income for Kotlin developers varies by geography, experience, and abilities. The average income for a Kotlin developer in the United States is $1,34,550 per year. The average compensation for a Kotlin developer in India is ₹5,00,000 per year.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Kotlin:

  • Kotlin code is usually more succinct than Java code. This makes writing and reading simpler.
  • Kotlin is a secure programming language. This implies it is less likely to result in mistakes.
  • Kotlin is an expressive programming language. This means that it is simple to develop code that is straightforward and understandable.
  • Interoperability: Kotlin is compatible with Java. This means that Kotlin code may be used in Java projects and vice versa.

Here are some of the cons of using Kotlin:

  • Not as mature as Java: Kotlin is a relatively new language, and it is not as mature as Java. This means that there are fewer features and that the language may be subject to change.
  • Not as popular as Java: Kotlin is not as popular as Java. This means that there are fewer libraries and frameworks available for Kotlin.

Properties of Kotlin are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Statically TypedThe data type of a variable is explicitly defined. This can assist to reduce mistakes and make code more understandable.
2.Type InferenceKotlin employs type inference to determine the data type of a variable given its initializer. This can make code more succinct and easy to read.
3.Object-Oriented ProgrammingKotlin is an object-oriented programming language. This helps you to write reusable code and organise your code logically.
4.Functional ProgrammingKotlin allows for functional programming. This is a programming paradigm that places a strong emphasis on functions and immutable data structures.
5.CoroutinesCoroutines, which are lightweight threads that may be used to perform code concurrently, are supported by Kotlin. This can make your code more responsive and efficient.

11. Swift

Swift is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose compiled programming language created by Apple Inc. and the open-source community. Swift is intended to be more secure, contemporary, and expressive than Objective-C, the previous programming language used for development on macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift was introduced during the 2014 Worldwide Developer Conference (WWDC) and debuted in 2014.

Swift developer salaries vary depending on region, experience, and talents. The average income for a Swift developer in the United States is $1,25,946 per year. In India, the average annual compensation for a Swift developer is ₹4,00,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Swift:

  • Swift is a safe language that aids with mistake prevention. When debugging your code, this can save you time and stress.
  • Swift is a rapid programming language that may be used to build high-performance apps. As a result, it is an excellent choice for creating games, graphics-intensive apps, and other demanding applications.
  • Swift is an expressive programming language that makes it simple to produce clear and short code. This can improve the readability and maintainability of your code.
  • Swift is a contemporary language with features that are not seen in previous languages. This can increase the power and flexibility of your code.

Here are some of the cons of using Swift:

  • Not as mature as some other languages: Swift is a relatively new language, and it is not as mature as some other languages, such as Java or C#. This means that there are fewer features and that the language may be subject to change.
  • Not as popular as some other languages: Swift is not as popular as some other programming languages, such as Java or Python. This means that there are fewer libraries and frameworks available for Swift.

Properties of Swift are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.SafeSwift is a safe language that aids with mistake prevention. This is due to Swift's characteristics such as type and memory safety.
2.FastSwift is a fast language for developing high-performance apps. This is due to the fact that Swift is compiled to native code.
3.ExpressiveSwift is an expressive programming language that allows you to write clean and simple code. This is due to Swift's characteristics like closures and operator overloading.
4.ModernSwift is a contemporary language with capabilities that previous languages do not have, such as generics and protocol extensions.

12. R

R is a free and open-source statistical computing and graphics programming language and environment. It is a versatile language that may be used for a wide range of applications. R was developed at the University of Auckland in 1993 by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman. It is called after the creators' first names. R is a prominent data analysis and machine learning language that is utilised by many big corporations, including Google, Facebook, and Amazon.

R developers typical income varies according on region, experience, and talents. The average income for a R developer in the United States is $1,23,147 per year. In India, the average annual income for a R developer is ₹4,50,000.

The following are some of the advantages of using R:

  • R is a sophisticated language that may be used for a wide range of activities.
  • R is a versatile language that may be used for a wide range of data kinds and applications.
  • R is an extensible programming language that may be expanded with additional functions and packages.
  • R has a big and active user and developer community.

Here are some disadvantages to using R:

  • Not as simple to learn as other languages: R may be a tough language to learn, particularly for beginners.
  • Not as quick as other languages: R is not as fast as other languages like C++ or Python. This may be an issue for some applications.
  • R is a relatively young language, and it is not as developed as some other languages, such as Java or C#. This implies that there are fewer characteristics and that the language may evolve.

Properties of R are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Data AnalysisR is a strong data analysis language. It provides a wide range of statistical and graphical features for data analysis.
2.Machine LearningR is a popular language for machine learning. There are many machine learning libraries and frameworks available for R.
3.Statistical ModelingR is a prominent statistical modelling language. It includes a wide range of statistical functions for building and fitting statistical models.
4.Data VisualizationR is a prominent data visualisation language. It contains a variety of graphical tools that may be used to create visually appealing and useful visualisations.

13. C

C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language with a static type system that supports structured programming, lexical variable scoping, and recursion. C is designed to offer structures that efficiently translate to common computer instructions. Dennis Ritchie created C in the early 1970s at Bell Labs to provide a portable and efficient system programming language. C has since become one of the world's most popular programming languages, and it is utilised for a wide range of activities.

C developers average income varies depending on geography, experience, and abilities. The average compensation for a C developer in the United States is $1,13,840 per year. In India, the average annual compensation for a C developer is ₹3,50,000.

The following are some of the advantages of using C:

  • C is an extremely efficient programming language that may be used to construct high-performance applications.
  • C code is portable because it can be compiled for a wide range of systems, making it an excellent choice for cross-platform development.
  • C provides the programmer with extensive control over the underlying hardware, which is important for low-level programming tasks.
  • C is a versatile language that may be used for a wide range of activities.
  • C has a big and active user and developer community.

Here are some of the cons of using C:

  • C can be a complex language, especially for beginners.
  • C is an error-prone language, and it can be difficult to debug code.
  • C is not as secure as some other languages, such as Java or Python. This is because C code can be executed on the client-side, which means that it can be tampered with by malicious users.
  • Not as user-friendly as some other languages: C is not as user-friendly as some other languages, such as Python or Java. This can make it more difficult to learn and use.

Properties of C are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.ProceduralC is a procedural language, which means that code is organized into functions.
2.Structured ProgrammingC allows structured programming, which implies that code may be divided into smaller, more understandable portions.
3.Lexical Variable ScopeC has lexical variable scope, which means that the scope of a variable is determined by its location in the code.
4.RecursionC supports recursion, which means that a function can call itself.
5.Static Type SystemBecause C has a static type system, the types of variables and expressions must be defined before they may be used.

14. C++

C++ is a general-purpose, compiled, statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language. It was created by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs in 1979 as an extension to the C programming language, and its design philosophy emphasises dependability, efficiency, and flexibility. C++ has been used to create a wide range of applications, including operating systems, compilers, databases, embedded systems, scientific computers, and video games. It is one of the most popular programming languages in the world, with a big number of software developers using it.

The average salary of C++ developers varies depending on location, experience, and skills. The average salary for a C++ developer in the United States is $1,24,000 per year. In India, the average salary for a C++ developer is ₹4,50,000 per year.

The following are some of the benefits of using C++:

  • C++ is a powerful programming language that may be used to create high-performance applications.

  • Because C++ code can be written for a broad range of platforms, it is a great choice for cross-platform development.

  • Control: C++ gives the programmer a lot of power over the underlying hardware, which is useful for low-level programming tasks.

  • C++ is a powerful programming language that may be used for a variety of tasks.

  • C++ has a large and active user and developer community.

Here are some disadvantages of using C++:

  • C++ may be a difficult language to learn, especially for beginners.
  • C++ is an error-prone language, and debugging code can be challenging.
  • C++ is not as secure as other programming languages such as Java or Python. This is because C++ code may be performed on the client side, which allows malevolent individuals to tamper with it.
  • C++ is not as user-friendly as some other programming languages, such as Python or Java. This can make learning and using it more challenging.

Properties of C++ are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Object-OrientedBecause C++ is an object-oriented language, code is organised into objects.
2.ClassesC++ supports classes, which are templates for creating objects.
3.InheritanceC++ supports inheritance, which allows one class to inherit the properties of another class.
4.PolymorphismC++ supports polymorphism, which allows objects of different types to behave in a similar way.
5.TemplatesC++ supports templates, which allow code to be reused for different types of data.

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15. Matlab

MathWorks created MATLAB, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language. Matrix manipulation, function and data visualisation, algorithm implementation, user interface building, and connecting with programmes written in other languages such as C, C++, Java, Python, and.NET are all possible with MATLAB. Cleve Moler created MATLAB in 1970 at the University of New Mexico for use in numerical analysis classes. In 1984, the first commercial version of MATLAB was made available.

The typical MATLAB developer compensation varies according to geography, experience, and abilities. The average annual pay for a MATLAB developer in the United States is $1,04,840, according to Indeed. In India, the average annual income for a MATLAB developer is ₹3,50,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising MATLAB:

  • MATLAB is a strong numerical computing platform for performing complicated mathematical computations.
  • MATLAB is a versatile programming language that may be used for a wide range of applications, including data analysis, machine learning, and image processing.
  • Because MATLAB is extensible, it may be expanded with additional functions and libraries.
  • MATLAB has a big and active user and developer community.

Here are some disadvantages of using MATLAB:

  • Because MATLAB is commercial software, it must be licenced in order to be used.
  • MATLAB may be a difficult language to learn, especially for beginners.
  • MATLAB is not as open-source as some other languages, which implies that the source code is not available for public usage.

Properties of MATLAB are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Matrix ManipulationMATLAB has a powerful matrix manipulation engine that allows for efficient operations on large matrices.
2.Function and Data PlottingMATLAB has a plotting engine that allows you to easily construct graphs and charts of functions and data.
3.Implementation of AlgorithmsMATLAB may be used to create algorithms such as sorting and search algorithms.
4.Creation of User InterfacesMATLAB can be used to create user interfaces, such as graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
5.Interfacing with Other LanguagesMATLAB can communicate with programmes written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, Python, and NET.

16. TypeScript

TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that provides type safety. Microsoft is in charge of its development and upkeep. TypeScript is intended to be a progressive language, which means that it may be used to incrementally add type safety to existing JavaScript code. TypeScript was initially made available in 2012. It has now grown in popularity as a programming language for creating online apps, server-side applications, and mobile applications. TypeScript is widely utilised in many other fields, including data science and machine learning. TypeScript is a strong programming language that can be used for a wide range of activities. Because it is statically typed, the types of variables and expressions must be stated before they may be used. This reduces mistakes and increases the dependability of TypeScript programmes. TypeScript also supports classes, interfaces, and modules, making it an excellent choice for creating big, sophisticated applications.

TypeScript developers salaries vary according on region, experience, and talents. The average annual pay for a TypeScript developer in the United States is $1,34,550. In India, the average annual compensation for a TypeScript developer is ₹50,00,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising TypeScript:

  • Static typing in TypeScript aids in error prevention and makes TypeScript code more dependable.
  • TypeScript's interfaces and generics facilitate the creation of reusable code and the development of modular applications.
  • TypeScript modules make managing huge codebases and sharing code between projects easier.
  • TypeScript is a newer language than JavaScript, and it offers capabilities that JavaScript does not have, such as static typing and modules.

Here are some disadvantages of using TypeScript:

  • Because TypeScript is not as extensively supported as JavaScript, there may be less libraries and frameworks available for it.
  • TypeScript has the potential to be slower than JavaScript, particularly for basic operations.
  • TypeScript's static typing can cause code to be more verbose than JavaScript's.

Properties of TypeScript are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Static typingTypeScript extends JavaScript with static typing, which implies that the types of variables and expressions must be defined before they can be used. This reduces mistakes and makes TypeScript code more dependable.
2.InterfacesInterfaces are a means to specify the structure of an object without providing any implementation details in TypeScript. This facilitates the creation of reusable code and the development of modular applications.
3.GenericsGenerics are a technique to define functions and classes that can operate with diverse sorts of data in TypeScript. This makes it easy to develop more flexible and reusable code.
4.ModulesTypeScript supports modules, a method of organising code into logical chunks. This makes managing huge codebases and sharing code between projects easier.

17. Scala

Scala is a general-purpose programming language with static typing that is intended to be simple, expressive, and scalable. It blends object-oriented and functional programming capabilities. Scala is frequently used for large-scale data processing and machine learning applications. Martin Oderski, a co-creator of the Java programming language, invented Scala. Scala is Java's successor, and it may be used to develop Java-compatible programmes. Scala, on the other hand, includes a number of capabilities that Java does not, such as functional programming techniques and type inference. Scala is a sophisticated programming language that can be used for a wide range of activities.

Scala developers' salaries vary depending on region, experience, and talents. The average income for a Scala developer in the United States is $1,35,200 per year. In India, the average annual compensation for a Scala developer is ₹50,00,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Scala:

  • Scala is a succinct and expressive programming language that may make code simpler to understand and write.
  • Scala is a scalable programming language that may be used to create huge, complicated applications.
  • Scala is an adaptable programming language that can be expanded with new libraries and frameworks.
  • Scala is a safe language that can aid with mistake prevention.

Here are some disadvantages of using Scala:

  • Scala is not as well supported as some other languages, therefore there may be fewer libraries and frameworks available for it.
  • Scala is a complicated language that might be tough to master for beginners.
  • Scala can be sluggish when doing some activities, such as compiling code or conducting simulations.

Properties of Scala are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Functional ProgrammingFunctional programming, a programming paradigm that emphasises the usage of functions, is supported by Scala. This can help to make code more succinct and simpler to understand.
2.Object-Oriented ProgrammingObject-oriented programming, which emphasises the usage of objects, is likewise supported by Scala. This has the potential to make programming more modular and reusable.
3.Type InferenceScala enables type inference, which implies that the types of variables and expressions may be deduced from their context. This can make code shorter and simpler to read.
4.ImmutabilityImmutability is supported by Scala, which means that objects cannot be altered after they are created. This can make programming more thread-safe and reasonable.

18. Julia

Julia is a dynamic programming language with a high degree of abstraction and efficiency for numerical computing. It is intended to be fast and expressive, as well as to scale well with contemporary technology. Julia is used for many different activities. Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral Shah, and Alan Edelman created Julia in 2009.

Julia developer salaries vary according on region, experience, and talents. The average income for a Julia developer in the United States is $1,15,000 per year. Julia developers earn an average of ₹4,00,000 per year in India.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Julia:

  • Julia is a quick language to learn, which can save developers time.
  • Julia is a fast language that helps speed up application development and deployment.
  • Julia is a versatile language that may be used for a wide range of activities.
  • Julia is an extensible language that may be enhanced with custom libraries and frameworks.

Here are some disadvantages of using Julia:

  • Julia is not as well supported as some other languages, hence there may be less Julia libraries and frameworks available.
  • Julia is a complicated language that might be tough to master for beginners.
  • Julia can be sluggish when doing some activities, such as compiling code or conducting simulations.

Properties of Julia are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.High-Level LanguageJulia is a high-level language that is easy to learn and use.
2.High-PerformanceJulia is a high-performance language that can be used to run numerical computations quickly.
3.DynamicJulia is a dynamic language that allows for rapid development.
4.Multi-ParadigmJulia supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, object-oriented, and imperative programming.

19. Rust

Rust is a contemporary systems programming language that is secure, quick, and expressive. It is a compiled language, which means that before it is run, it is translated to machine code. Rust programmes become faster and more efficient as a result. Rust is also statically typed, which implies variable and expression types must be defined before they may be used. This reduces mistakes and increases the dependability of Rust programmes. Mozilla invented Rust in 2010.

Rust developers' salaries vary depending on region, experience, and talents. The average income for a Rust developer in the United States is $1,24,000 per year. In India, the average annual income for a Rust developer is ₹4,50,000.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Rust:

  • Rust's memory safety aids in the prevention of crashes and mistakes, making it a more dependable language.
  • Rust is a fast programming language that may be used to create high-performance apps.
  • Rust is an expressive language, which makes it simple to write clear and short code.
  • Because Rust enables concurrency, developers may design code that can operate on several cores at the same time.

Here are some disadvantages of using Rust:

  • Not as widely supported: Rust is not as widely supported as some other languages, so there may be fewer libraries and frameworks available for Rust.
  • Can be difficult to learn: Rust is a complex language that can be difficult to learn for beginners.
  • Not as mature as some other languages: Rust is a relatively new language, so it may not be as mature as some other languages.

Properties of Rust are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Memory SafetyRust is a memory-safe programming language, which means it prevents memory mistakes like buffer overflows and dangling pointers. This improves the reliability and stability of Rust code.
2.SpeedRust is a fast programming language that may be used to create high-performance apps.
3.ExpressivenessRust is an expressive language, which means that it allows developers to write clear and concise code.
4.ConcurrencyRust supports concurrency, which allows developers to write code that can run on multiple cores simultaneously.

20. Perl

Perl is a general-purpose programming language that was first created for text manipulation and is today used for a broad range of activities, including system administration, web development, network programming, GUI creation, and more. A lively user and development community supports this robust language, which has a sizable standard library.

The average salary of Perl developers varies depending on location, experience, and skills. The average salary for a Perl developer in the United States is $1,03,366 per year. In India, the average salary for a Perl developer is ₹3,50,000 per year.

The following are some of the advantages of utilising Perl:

  • Perl is a sophisticated text processing tool. It is capable of manipulating text, extracting data from text, and generating text.
  • Regular expressions: Perl has a sophisticated regular expression engine for matching and extracting patterns from text.
  • Perl has a huge module library that may be used to enhance the language.
  • Object-oriented programming is supported by Perl.

Here are some disadvantages of using Perl:

  • Perl can be complicated and difficult to learn for beginners.
  • Perl can be sluggish while doing certain tasks.
  • Perl has a few security flaws.

Properties of Perl are given in table below:

Serial NumberParameterDescription
1.Text ProcessingPerl is a sophisticated text processing language. It is capable of manipulating text, extracting data from text, and generating text.
2.Regular ExpressionsPerl has a powerful regular expression engine that can be used to match and extract patterns from text.
3.ModulesPerl has a large library of modules that can be used to extend the language.
4.Object-Oriented ProgrammingPerl supports object-oriented programming.

FAQs

What are the Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2024?

A. Some of the top programming languages to learn in 2024 are: Go, Python, JavaScript, Java, and Swift.

What are the most in-demand programming languages in the job market?

A. The most in-demand programming languages in terms of employment in 2024 are:

  • Python because of its ease of use and adaptability, it is frequently used for data analysis and machine learning.
  • Popular large data processing language is Java.
  • C++ is a potent programming language for applications that require plenty of data.

Which Programming language is Best for Mobile App Development?

A. Swift (for iOS) and Kotlin (for Android) are the most widely used programming languages for mobile app development.

What programming Language should I learn for Cyber Security?

A. The top cybersecurity languages include Java, JavaScript, Python, SQL, PHP, PowerShell, and C.

What is the preferred programming language for data analysis and machine learning?

A. The best data science programming languages are Python, R, Java, SQL, Scala, and Julia.

Which programming language is best for Data Science?

A. Some of the top programming languages to learn in 2024 are: Go, Python, JavaScript, Java, and Swift.