## What is Data Science?

In the 21st century, data and information are the most valuable assets for any organization or business worldwide. As enterprises have started adopting various digitization and cloud-based platforms to increase the efficiency of their business operations, they are generating a massive volume of data.

So, enterprises are looking to hire professionals who can analyze this enormous amount of data and derive valuable insights to gain a competitive advantage. It has resulted in increased demand for various Data Science professionals, such as Data Scientists, Data Analysts, etc., in recent years.

Data Science is a field that brings together domain expertise, programming skills, and statistical techniques to derive actionable insights and knowledge from data. It includes a wide range of tasks, such as data collection, data storage, data cleaning, and analyzing data, as well as building and deploying machine learning models to make predictions or decisions.

Data Scientists are practitioners of the Data Science discipline who help businesses make informed decisions and improve business processes by analyzing large amounts of data using advanced analytical and scientific methods. They use various tools and techniques, such as statistical analysis, machine learning, visualization techniques, etc., to derive insights and meaning from data.

## Audience

This tutorial is intended for aspiring data scientists who are recently graduated or experienced professionals and want to build a career in data science.

## Prerequisite

To make the best out of this Data Science tutorial, below are the technical prerequisites -

**Programming Languages**- This tutorial requires you to have a basic knowledge of at least one programming language, such as Python, R, etc. In this tutorial, we have provided code sections for many techniques written in Python.**Mathematics & Statistics**- It is good to have a basic understanding of mathematical and statistical concepts involved in Data Science. This tutorial briefly introduces the most commonly used mathematical and statistical concepts in data science, such as probability, hypothesis testing, inferential statistics, etc.

## Need for Data Science

Data science is the fastest-growing field in the 21st century and has become important for organizations of any size, as it enables them to make data-driven decisions and leverage the power of data to gain a competitive advantage.

Here are some examples of how data science can be used to solve real-world problems -

- Data science can be used to identify underlying patterns and trends in data to derive actionable insights that can help organizations make better decisions and improve their business operations.
- Data science can be used to personalize customer experiences, such as product recommendations, targeted advertising or marketing campaigns, etc.
- Data science can be used to support decision-making by providing insights and recommendations based on the analysis performed on the data.
- Data science can be used to identify new market opportunities and inform business strategy.
- By analyzing historical data and identifying patterns and trends, data science can help build models that can be used to make predictions about future events.

## Applications of Data Science

Data Science has a variety of applications and can be used to solve problems in any industry or field. Let’s explore a few of the most prominent applications of Data Science.

**Marketing**- Data science can be used to understand customers' behavior, identify underlying trends and patterns, and optimize marketing campaigns.**Finance**- In the financial industry, Data science is used to identify investment opportunities, predict stock prices, and detect fraud and risks.**Healthcare**- Data science can be used to improve patient outcomes by analyzing patient data to identify patterns and predict outcomes. It can also be used to optimize resource allocation and improve healthcare systems' efficiency.**E-Commerce**- Data science can be used to personalize product recommendations, optimize pricing, and improve the customer experience.**Manufacturing**- Data science can be used to optimize processes, reduce wastage, and improve the overall efficiency of supply chains.**Transportation**- Data science can be used to optimize delivery routes, reduce costs, and improve the overall efficiency of transportation systems.

## Tools for Data Science

Below are the most popular tools required for Data Science -

- Programming languages - Python, R, SQL, etc.
- Data analysis tools - SAS, MATLAB, Excel, Rapidminer, Jupyter, etc.
- Data warehousing tools - ETL, SQL, Hadoop, Informatica/Talend, AWS Redshift, etc.
- Data visualization tools - Tableau, PowerBI, R, Jupyter, etc.
- Machine learning tools - Spark, Azure ML studio, etc.

## Why Choose Data Science as a Career?

Data science is a rapidly growing field that offers many career opportunities with high earning potential. Here are a few of the reasons why data science might be a good career choice -

- The demand for data science professionals has skyrocketed recently and is expected to grow in the next decade as well. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has predicted a 22% growth in the demand for Data Science jobs during 2020-2030, which is way higher than the 7.7% growth for any other kinds of occupations.
- Data science professionals, such as data scientists, data analysts, data engineers, etc., are among the highest-paid professionals in the 21st century. For example, in India, the average salary for a Data Scientist is around 10 LPA, while a Senior Data Scientist earns around 20 LPA.
- Data science applies to almost any industry or field, such as finance, healthcare, marketing, e-commerce, etc., so abundant career opportunities are available.
- Data science allows you to work on a wide array of challenging problems, and the derived insights and developed solutions can have a significant real-world impact.

## How Long Does It Take to Learn Data Science?

The time to learn data science will depend on various factors, such as prior knowledge and experience, available resources, dedication to learning, discipline, etc.

If you have a strong foundation in mathematics and programming, and you can dedicate a significant amount of time to learning, it is possible to learn the basics of data science in a few months. However, becoming proficient in data science will likely take longer, as it involves many skills and technologies.

To learn data science, you can consider enrolling in a data science degree program, such as a bachelor’s or master's in data science. These programs typically take a few years to complete and provide a comprehensive education in data science.

Alternatively, you can consider online courses, boot camps, or certifications to learn data science. These can allow you to learn at your own pace and can be more flexible, but they may require more self-motivation and discipline.

## About this Data Science Tutorial

This tutorial covers the below-mentioned techniques and concepts involved in data science -

- Introduction to key concepts involved in the field of probability and statistics, such as probability distributions, hypothesis testing, inferential statistics, confidence interval, etc.
- Various data extraction techniques - SQL, web scraping, introduction to ETL, etc.
- The key techniques involved in data preprocessing - data understanding, data cleaning, handling missing values, etc.
- Key techniques to perform exploratory data analysis (EDA) - data visualization, correlation, covariance, outlier analysis, etc.
- Various feature engineering and transformation techniques - standardization, one hot encoding, ordinal encoding, normalization, etc.
- Introduction to linear regression.
- Hands-on experience on various projects with real-world data sets.

## Take-Away Skills from This Data Science Tutorial

- Post-completion of this tutorial, you will have a basic understanding of various concepts and techniques involved in the field of data science. You will also get to know how you can implement these techniques using Python language.
- You will also get hands-on experience on a wide range of projects with real-world datasets. These projects will help you sharpen your theoretical concepts learned in the tutorial.
- Overall, this data science tutorial aims to provide a basic ground for you to enter in the field of data science and make a career in it.