Top 12 Backend Technologies (2023)

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Saying that web and software development have become mainstream would be an understatement. Although consumer needs and aesthetics are increasingly considered during software development, the backend is what operates the software. Without superior backend technologies, web and mobile applications won't be scalable, functional, or intuitive. The "backend" of a software system, or the "background technology," concentrates on the app architecture and serves as a link between the database and the front end.

Selecting the appropriate backend technology can be a big question, particularly for a non-tech specialist. We hope this in-depth article will assist you in identifying the key distinctions among the most popular backend languages and selecting the best technology for your upcoming project. You will also discover more dependable traditional backend tools with modern web development technologies.

What is Back-end Development?

Backend web development involves building all the aspects of a website that are not visible to the users but are essential for the proper working and functioning of the website. It is the behind-the-scenes function of different web applications and involves creating and maintaining the code that runs a website smoothly.

The backend comprises three main parts —

  • A Database - A database helps us store a large amount of information in an efficient and structured way compared to storing that information in a text file.
  • Server - A server is a computer that receives user requests through the front-end interface (also known as the client) and responds with a result computed by the application.
  • Application - An application is a computer program that listens for requests on the server, retrieves information from the database, and sends a response through the server.

Rather than front-end development that concentrates on the development of the user interface, backend development handles server-side web application functionality and integration as well as tasks such as designing APIs, generating libraries, and dealing with multiple components of the system. Backend programmers create the code that enables database and application communication.

what is backend

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Who Is A Backend Developer?

Backend developer responsibilities

Following your orientation to backend development, it is critical that you comprehend the nature of the position. Working on-site layout, programming, and building code that interacts between the user's browser and the website's database are part of a backend developer's job description. Consistency and integrity of the data must be of the utmost priority.

To be more precise, backend developers are programmers that are dedicated to designing, fixing, and transforming the features of a software application that an end user will never see. Whenever a consumer makes any type of request to the system through the front-end framework, the back-end developers must ensure that a program can answer any request for data.

Top backend Technologies

When it comes to the types of backend technologies, we can find that a plethora of these are being extensively used in the domain. We have compiled a backend technologies list just for you to understand the various technologies. Let's take a comprehensive look at this list of backend technologies with the pros and cons of each.

1. PHP

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor and is a server-side scripting language, meaning that programs created in it execute on web servers and are not dependent on an online browser. C. Rasmus Lerdorf is the creator of PHP, and its first version appeared in 1995. One of the most popular languages developers use to create new apps, PHP is extensively used to develop online applications.


  • Open-source and free of cost
  • It's platform-independent
  • Faster loading rate


  • It may not be suitable for all bigger web-based applications
  • Lacks debugging tools
  • Considered less secure relative to others

2. Python

Python is an interpreted, high-level, object-oriented, dynamically semantic programming language. It is particularly desirable for Rapid Application Development and usage as a scripting language to tie elements collectively due to its high-level built-in data structures, robust typing, and dynamic binding. Python's concise syntax prioritizes readability and simplifies learning, lowering program maintenance costs.


  • Open-source and free
  • Easy to learn
  • A vast collection of libraries


  • Has speed limitations
  • May have runtime errors
  • It consumes a substantial amount of space

3. JavaScript

JavaScript is a robust computer programming language. Its implementation enables client-side scripts to interact with users and create dynamic pages, and it is most extensively used as a component of web pages. It is an object-oriented, lightweight, interpreted programming language. Many times it's considered synonymous with Java backend technologies. LiveScript was the original name of JavaScript, but Netscape renamed it to JavaScript, maybe in response to the buzz that Java was causing. LiveScript, the predecessor to JavaScript, debuted in Netscape 2.0 in 1995. Netscape, Internet Explorer, and many web browsers all contain the general-purpose language's core.


  • Language is not complex
  • Effortless to implement
  • Has high interoperability


  • Substandard browser support
  • Debugging facility is absent
  • Functioning is sluggish

4. Laravel

Laravel is a PHP web application framework with expressive and beautiful syntax. Laravel offers the strong capabilities required for large, sophisticated applications and is easily accessible. You have the resources you need to create whatever application you are entrusted with an excellent inversion of control container, an eloquent migration mechanism, and closely integrated unit testing assistance.


  • Convenient to learn
  • Provides model view controller structure
  • Offers swift execution


  • Lesser in-built support
  • Community support is low
  • The overall process is complex

5. Django

Django is a Python-based framework that follows the model-template-views (MTV) architecture. It is also open-source. The independent US-based Django Software Foundation (DSF) is responsible for its upkeep. Django's main objective is to make it simpler to create intricate, database-driven websites. The framework emphasizes component reuse and "pluggability," low code, minimal coupling, and quick development.


  • Faster than most frameworks
  • Scalability is high
  • Security is robust


  • Steep learning curve
  • Not compatible with small projects
  • Possesses a monolithic framework

6. MongoDB

MongoDB is a cross-platform document-oriented database application. It is also open source. MongoDB, a NoSQL database application, employs documents that resemble JSON(JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight format for storing and transporting data) with alternative schemas. MongoDB was created by MongoDB Inc. and is distributed under the Server Side Public License, which some distributions consider non-free.


  • Offers High speed
  • Provides flexible database
  • Has a good technical support


  • Faces memory limitation issues
  • Joins are not supported
  • May lead to corruption of data

7. MySQL

MySQL is one of the most widely used open-source databases worldwide. MySQL has established itself as the top database of preference for web-based applications thanks to its demonstrated performance, dependability, and usability. Popular websites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Yahoo!, and many others use MySQL as their primary database. The next-generation web, cloud, mobile, and embedded applications are powered by Oracle's new features, enabling MySQL innovation.


  • High data security
  • Offers cross-platform compatibility
  • Highly versatile


  • Debugging is inefficient
  • Prone to data corruption
  • It doesn't support large databases efficiently

8. Apache

Apache is an open-source and free framework that supports a large portion of websites across the globe. The name of the server is Apache HTTP Server. The Apache Software Foundation is in charge of its creation and upgrades. Apache enables website operators to serve material across the internet. It is referred to as a "web server" for this reason. The Apache web server was first released in 1995, making it one of the oldest and most dependable versions.


  • Open source and free
  • Highly reliable
  • Has customizable code


  • Incompetent debugging quality
  • Time-consuming process
  • Security is considered substandard


NGINX, sometimes recognized as NGIИX, is a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and web server capable of handling HTTP cache. High performance for Web servers with massive scaling is provided by Nginx. It can operate at high speeds while carrying more weight. The reverse proxy feature allows a single site to present aggregated information sources as if they all come from one page. Through its load balancer, loads can be distributed among various resources, such as servers. Igor Sysoev developed the program, which was made available to the public in 2004. NGINX is available for free and open source under the rules of a two-clause BSD license.


  • Highly scalable
  • It's lightweight
  • Great configurability


  • Low community support
  • Lesser modules
  • Less compatibility

10. Docker

Docker is a software platform that simplifies the process of building, running, managing, and distributing applications. Using OS-level virtualization, Docker's platform as service offering distributes software in packages known as containers. There are free and premium versions. The Docker Engine is the name of the program that runs the containers. Docker, Inc. is the company behind its creation, and it originally began in 2013.


  • Swift deployment
  • Highly secure
  • Continuous integration


  • Lesser features
  • Low scalability
  • Compatibility issues may arise

11. Postman

Developers can easily create, share, test, and document APIs(Application Programming Interface is a software intermediary that allows two applications to talk to each other) with Postman, an API platform. Users are given the ability to generate, store, and read both simple and complicated HTTP/s requests and their responses to achieve this. As a result, the work is more effective and less tiresome.


  • Highly user-friendly
  • Provides timely support
  • The overall process is easy


  • Constrained integration
  • Low script reusability
  • Limited testing ecosystem

12. Jira

Atlassian, an Australian company, created the technology JIRA. This software does project management, problem tracking, and bug tracking. The Japanese word "Gojira," which means "Godzilla," is where the JIRA full form gets its name. This tool's primary usage is to keep track of problems and issues with your software and applications.


  • High speed
  • Easy bug fixing
  • Offers effortless integration


  • Difficult to handle
  • Complex than its contemporaries
  • Faces support issues


Every development procedure entails frontend and backend technologies. Back-end technology is a technology that we cannot see but plays a critical role in the overall operation of any software or application. Backend technologies usually allude to the collections of server-side languages used to build a website's server setup. The building blocks of software development are the backend technologies. We hope that you can comprehend each technology's advantages and disadvantages through this backend technologies list.

Additional Resources:

1. Top Backend Developer Skills You Must Have

2. Top Backend Technologies You Must Know

3. Top Most Popular Backend Frameworks

4. Frontend Vs Backend