SDLC - Big Bang Model in Software Engineering

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The Big bang model is an SDLC paradigm that begins from scratch. It is the most basic SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) paradigm because it requires very minimal planning. However, it demands more finances, code, and time. The big bang model was named after the “Great Big Bang,” which formed galaxies, stars, planets, etc. Similarly, to produce a product, this SDLC model combines time, effort, and resources. The product is gradually produced as the customer’s requirements arrive, yet, the ultimate product may not meet the actual requirements. Below is a diagrammatic illustration of the big bang model. MODEL OF BIG BANG

What is the Big Bang Model in Software Engineering?

The Big Bang model is a start-from-scratch SDLC model where very little time is spent on planning, and we do not follow any specific process. It is the most basic SDLC model because it does not necessitate any planning. Even the client is unsure of what he wants, and the requirements are applied on the fly with little thought. The fundamental purpose of this strategy is to begin coding immediately, without following any set structure, and to provide the product to the customer. Without knowing the end result, day-to-day development begins with some preliminary prerequisites. Then, the client communicates with the development team to monitor the outcome of the development. If the end outcome is as intended, the product is approved; otherwise, another strategy is sought and worked on to achieve the desired result.

Design of the Big Bang Model

This model does not require well-documented requirements. The product requirements are understood and implemented as they arrive. The primary focus is to code, so this model is more prone to risks than other SDLC models. The complete modules, or at least the part of the modules, are integrated, and then we proceed for testing. This model allows the blending of newer technologies to see the transformations and adaptability. The Big Bang model can be deconstructed into the following points:

  • In this paradigm, the modules are integrated after all of the modules are entirely developed. They are not merged separately or independently.
  • Each module is independently tested for faults or bugs.
  • If a module contains a bug, that module is disassembled, and the root cause of the problem is determined.

When to Use the Big Bang Model in Software Engineering?

In this model, we do not spend much time on planning, and development begins with the necessary funds and efforts in the form of inputs. This format is appropriate for short projects, such as academic or practical projects. In this paradigm, small teams, typically including two or three developers, can collaborate.

  • This paradigm is not ideal for major software development or sophisticated projects due to its high risk, but it can be used for temporary and experimental or tiny software.
  • This paradigm is typically appropriate for small projects with small development teams working together to construct a software application or just a dummy project.
  • It is also suitable for academic, learning, or practice projects.
  • It is an excellent model for a software product whose requirements are unclear or poorly understood and for which no release date is scheduled.


  • The big bang model comes with the following advantages:
  • It is very simple; managing tasks is very easy. It is a straightforward model that’s simple to execute. It is a straightforward notion to adopt because no software development life cycle process steps are needed. This makes it ideal for low-risk small-scale projects.
  • It does not require much planning; just start coding. There is no need for expensive study, analysis, documentation, or high-level design.
  • Developers have immense flexibility because there is no time constraint on the product’s release.
  • It requires fewer resources than other SDLC models, so it is cost-effective.


  • The big bang model has the following disadvantages:
  • It is not suitable for large projects. A long or large project necessitates multiple procedures, such as service level agreements, planning, preparation, analysis, testing, and execution, which the Big Bang approach lacks. As a consequence, it is the worst model for a major project.
  • This model is highly uncertain and risky.
  • If the requirements are not clear, it can turn out to be very expensive.
  • It is inherently unreliable.


  • The big bang model is a no-nonsense model which does not necessitate much planning and analysis and just dives straight into coding.
  • The requirements are accommodated as and when they arrive.
  • The model is inherently simple and easy to implement but unreliable.
  • It is most suited for small, academic, hobby, or dummy projects.
  • This model is unsuitable for large-scale projects requiring proper planning and analysis.