Full Stack Software Engineer: Skills, Salary, Job Description & More

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Everyone has heard of front-end and back-end development. Front-end developers are in charge of the user experience, designing the Graphical User Interface that users interact with, while the back-end development involves behind-the-scenes handling operations, which are executed when a user performs any action on the website, such as submitting a form, etc. Full-stack development refers to combining front-end and back-end development.

The 2020 Stack Overflow Developer Survey found that 37.1% of engineers call themselves front-end developers, 55.2% consider themselves back-end developers, and 55% identify as full-stack software engineers.

how developers identify the role

The future scope of the full-stack software engineer is expanding as more firms want people who understand both the front-end and back-end. Compared to other tech career titles and their predicted wages, the full stack software engineer certification course offers one of the best Returns on Investment (ROI).

To design user-facing systems, full-stack software engineers should be familiar with front-end technologies like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and Front-end frameworks. In addition, they should be familiar with server-side dynamic web languages like PHP, Ruby, NodeJS, and Python, as well as relational databases like Oracle, MySQL, and PostgreSQL.

What Is A Full Stack Software Engineer?

A developer working on an application's front and back end is known as a full-stack software engineer. They have the expertise to handle any task, including customer interaction, system engineering, database management, server administration, and architecture.

Full-stack software engineers are familiar with all the stages of software development on a practical level. They are capable enough of merely taking a concept and independently developing it into a finished product. They are proficient in various languages, particularly web languages (HTML, CSS, and JavaScript), software development methodologies, server-side programming languages like Python, PHP, Java, Ruby, and the many tools required to create a fully functional web or mobile app.

Hiring a full-stack software engineer will benefit your business since they can ease the cost of your project, transition between front-end and back-end development, assist team members, and work independently. They are regarded as valuable resources for the business.

What Does A Full-Stack Engineer Do?

A full-stack engineer is a software developer that writes code not just for the UI of the web or mobile applications but also for the server code that runs in the background, the API code that sits in the middle, and the server code that connects to and interacts with databases. What distinguishes a full-stack software engineer from a front-end or a back-end developer? A full-stack software engineer mostly works on both front-end and back-end projects. Not only that, though.

They can establish the connection between those two sides because they thoroughly understand how those components go together. A full-stack software engineer considers not just the front-end and back-end but also their interrelationships and methods of communication.

Full Stack Engineer Job Description

The Front-end and Back-end development of a website - Both are the responsibilities of a full stack software engineer. In this way, they offer a full range of services. Their duties may also include collaborating with clients when projects are being planned. More developers are already becoming full stack developers as the front and back distinction becomes less distinct.

Many organizations, particularly agencies that work on a variety of sites, are searching for developers who are proficient in working on both the front and back end of a site so they can use the finest technologies available. Although it's crucial to note that the full stack software engineer must be knowledgeable about and highly proficient in most parts of web and mobile application development, they may frequently work with others to produce specialized code for big or complex projects.

Following is the job description of a full-stack software engineer in the USA:

  • Creating the front-end architecture of a website.
  • Creating UI/UX for websites.
  • Creating servers and databases as a part of back-end development.
  • Cross-platform compatibility and optimization.
  • Collaborating with graphic designers to develop responsive/dynamic user interfaces.
  • Writing clean code for both the back-end and front-end of the application.
  • Project management from ideation stage to production.
  • Developing and managing APIs.
  • Addressing consumer and technological demands - Making changes in the front-end and back-end technologies to keep the software optimized.
  • Considering factors like scalability, maintenance, and security while developing the application.
  • Keeping up with advancements in programming languages and web apps.

Full-Stack Engineer Tools and Skills

To become a successful full-stack software engineer, you need knowledge, a presence of mind, and the ability to work under pressure.

Full stack developer skill set

Following are some of the skillsets a full-stack software engineer needs to succeed in this industry:

Front-end Development

The front end is half the skill set required to become a full-stack software engineer. The front end of an application can be described as the graphical user interface that the users interact with. For example, the layout, buttons, text elements, etc., comprise the front end of an application. Front-end developers use HTML, CSS, and JavaScript as their primary languages.

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) displays information using various tags like paragraphs, titles, headings, etc. It acts as the backbone of the front end.
  • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a language to style the front end using colors, margins, background images, text alignments, etc. It styles the front end so that it looks attractive to the user.
  • JavaScript is a programming language that provides functionalities to the front-end elements. For example, clicking the submit button submits/sends the form data to the backend after validating the inputs on the front-end side.

what is front end developer

The user's perception of your solution is mostly under the hands of the user interface designer or the front-end developer. That doesn't imply you'll have a nice experience if your UI is fantastic, but your back-end is poorly performing. The backend code and databases must be fast to deliver a smooth experience to the user. Collectively, HTML and CSS serve as the cornerstone for developing online front ends as well as certain mobile front ends. If you would like to become a full-stack software engineer, you must comprehend them fundamentally.

There are two aspects of how the front end can be delivered to the end-user. One is the client side, and the other is the server side. Let's take a look at what makes them different.


The front end could be rendered in one of two ways: on the server side or the client side. The front end combines several components in web development. Generally, a request is sent to the server when you access a website using its URL. The web server accepts the request, locates the needed resources, typically the HTML and CSS content corresponding to the website, and sends them back in a suitable format. This is the most typical and tried-and-true method of delivering a front end.

Today, a server frequently receives the request, after which the back end evaluates some data and inserts it into a template. The user receives HTML and CSS versions of the final template populated with data. The front-end consisting of HTML, CSS, and other resources like JavaScript files, is displayed on the browser. More back-end frameworks, including some of the most well-liked ones, also offer server-side rendering. Some of the most used ones are:

  • Django (Python)
  • Laravel (PHP)
  • Gatsby (JavaScript)
  • WordPress (PHP)
  • Rails (Ruby)
  • Next.js (JavaScript)
  • Ember.js (JavaScript)


The front end, or user interface, is always handled client-side in a mobile or desktop app. Front-end code is typically not served up by servers or back-end services. The local hard disk is used to load the code directly. You can write user interfaces in various languages and frameworks depending on your context. Popular ones include Ionic, Xamarin, React Native, and Flutter, which operate on iOS and Android, as well as SwiftUI for iOS, macOS, and other Apple environments.

The front-end languages and frameworks for desktop applications differ according to the operating system. The web browser assumes control in full-stack web development when the server transmits data. JavaScript may modify, update, and change the HTML and CSS. In other cases, a browser loads a JavaScript file; the remaining HTML and CSS are dynamically generated.

Since the client, and not the server, generates the front end, this is known as the client-side front end. React, Angular, and Vue remain the uncontested monarchs of client-side front-end frameworks. There are many more, but these are unquestionably the most cherished.

Usually, someone would handle HTML and CSS while a developer handled JavaScript. Since JavaScript and HTML are more difficult to separate, that is increasingly just one individual. Everyone seems to want to learn JavaScript frameworks these days, however, it is ultimately more advantageous to have a firm grasp of JavaScript principles before delving into JavaScript frameworks such as React, Next.js, Ember.js, etc.

Back-end Development

Backend development refers to a process done for server-side development. (It is referred to as “server-side” development because the creation of everything goes behind the scenes of a website or application that the user can't see.) This process focuses on databases, website architecture, and scripting.

One easy way to understand the backend development is:-

When you read an article on the blog, the fonts, colors, and designs comprise the front end of the page. The article's content is fetched from a database by the backend framework, and it is sent to the front end so it can be displayed. This is all the backend part of the page.

This layer is the hub for the services from where everything passes. It will be in charge of establishing a connection to the database and transferring data to the front end for presentation to the user after being prepared, etc. Backend code is responsible for merging, filtering, or otherwise altering data while it is being retrieved from the database.

Application programming interfaces, or APIs, are the pieces of code responsible for obtaining and modifying data from databases. These APIs can fetch data from databases managed by different companies such as Twitter, Meta, Instagram, etc.

The Twitter API illustrates a web-facing, or RESTful, API. It enables any software with the appropriate, registered credentials to publish to a Twitter profile from its own user interface rather than Twitter.

twitter api

Other back-end services may operate autonomously without user interaction. Consider a moment when you arranged something to occur later, such as releasing a YouTube video or sending a delayed email. In such a case, a scheduling procedure was established, and when the appropriate moment arrived, the back-end service took care of the sending or publishing task. Back-end services may often be created using any server-side programming language, frequently in conjunction with a web framework, which makes creating back-end services much easier. Some of the popular combinations used are:

  • Python and Django

  • Ruby and Rails

  • JavaScript and Express

  • PHP and Laravel

  • C# and .NET

These web frameworks offer boilerplate code for operations like linking to a database, making changes, and developing web-facing REST APIs. A full-stack software engineer must understand how to construct high-quality databases, interface with them, and govern data flow with strong back code.


User experience, or UX, is a wide concept, but if you want to think of yourself as a full-stack engineer, you must consider providing a smooth and responsive frontend experience to the end-users. This covers everything, from ensuring that people with impairments can properly use your program to ensuring that your user experience is simple and straightforward. Not only the UX, either. The end-user experience considers the performance of the APIs or services (how fast it is, etc.), the database design, and the efficiency of database queries.

Your front end might have the most beautiful design in the world, but if the user has to wait at a loading page, they won't have a pleasant experience if your database is sluggish or your queries aren't fast enough. You will become a more capable full-stack software engineer by continuing to learn UX and UI best practices. This will also help you naturally construct in a user-focused manner, producing better apps faster.

Managing Database

A database, or information repository, is at the heart of most applications. A database is the most effective way to store information in your application, whether it be users, posts, events, or any other type of data. These databases might be relational, where distinct data sets are linked by one or more common keys. They might also be document databases, sometimes known as no-SQL databases, because they don't assume any relationships between data sets.

Relational databases often used include MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. MongoDB is the most well-liked document database. You'll need to be familiar with SQL to begin studying database administration using relational databases. Relational databases employ the computer language SQL, Structured Query Language, to access data. SQL involves writing queries or commands that save, fetch, update or delete data from the database.

Several materials are available for studying the different frameworks and your chosen programming language. Scaler Academy provides one of the best and most intensive course for anyone wanting to learn coding languages and bag their dream job as a full-stack software engineer. Following that, you'll need to understand database organization and how relationships function inside relational databases.

Building durable, long-lasting full-stack apps requires understanding what defines effective database design. People who only have knowledge of one database system frequently make decisions that will later cause them many problems. It's crucial to comprehend how one system differs from the others.

Soft Skills

  • Mastering the algorithms, methods, and structure of databases.
  • Getting familiar with designing and managing databases.
  • Excellent management and communication abilities.
  • Ability to swiftly adapt to new technologies, concepts, techniques, and environments.
  • Analytical and problem-solving capabilities.
  • A willingness to constantly learn and improve oneself.
  • Understanding the app's or product's non-functional features, such as security, automation, testing, performance, scalability, and optimization.

What Are The Qualifications Required To Become A Full-Stack Software Engineer?

Obtain the necessary certification. This might be a Diploma of Information Technology (Back End Web Development), Certificate IV in Information Technology (Programming), or Diploma of Information Technology (Front End Web Development). Alternatively, you might earn a higher degree, such as a bachelor's in computer science or information technology.

A decent start is often with a bachelor's degree in computer science or a closely related discipline. To guarantee that you're up to speed on the most recent and pertinent tools, languages, and best practices, it might be helpful to enroll in an online course or boot camp gave how rapidly programming languages and web development technology progress.

For instance, in some courses, students may master the fundamentals of web internals, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python, Django, MySQL, Chrome Dev Tools, and Git in addition to getting an overview of frontend and backend technologies. Taking a full stack development course can also demonstrate to hiring managers that you value continuing professional development and are dedicated to remaining current with advances in your field.

What Is A Full-Stack Engineer Salary In The US?

The average annual pay for one full-stack software engineer in the US is USD 100,639 plus a USD 5,500 cash incentive. 12.1k reported salary, current as of August 20, 2022. The salary for a full-stack software engineer also varies according to region and experience. For a fresher full stack software engineer, expect a package of approximately USD 82,599. For someone with 3-5 years of experience as a full-stack software engineer, expect a package of approximately USD121,804.

Full stack software engineer salary in different states:

Austin, Texas: $113,924

Ohio: $95,241

Detroit: $109,468

Chicago: $111,381

New York: $123,481

Remember that these compensation ranges are only estimates. When hiring full-stack engineers with a specialty or a lot of expertise in the sector, some organizations offer attractive pay and benefits packages that far outpace the average reported wage.

How to Become a Full-Stack Software Engineer?

Typically, earning a bachelor's degree in computer science or computer engineering from a respectable university is the first step in beginning a career as a full-stack engineer. This should provide you with the knowledge and abilities required to carry out the duties of a full-stack engineer. To master all of the programming abilities required to become a full-stack engineer, you need to ensure that you receive real-world experience outside the classroom.

You should begin applying for employment as soon as you earn your degree. Your degree should, but for many people, suffice to land you a career in engineering. Consider getting your feet wet by gathering some experience as an intern and adding it to your resume if you are having trouble finding employment with only your degree.

This might entail creating your own application, working as a freelancer, or offering to work for free for a buddy. The more experience you can gain, the better. For the best chance of getting a job, you should also improve your communication and interviewing abilities.

What Should Be The Next Steps To Succeed As A Full-Stack Software Engineer?

In a profession where every day there is something new to learn, the more you know, the less it is. Constantly upskill and stay abreast of the latest trends, news, and tools in this profession if you wish to become the best of the best.

Read More

  1. Software Engineer vs Software Developer


A full-stack software engineer is a specialist in all aspects of web development, including frameworks, tools, and advancements. Due to growing demand, full-stack software engineers have a brighter future in this industry. The businesses choose personnel with both front-end and back-end development expertise.

Only a full-stack software engineer can explore unique solutions using cutting-edge technology and accelerate businesses' digital transformation. It offers a bright future for tech-savvy programmers who want to build a name for themselves in the industry. Today, an expert knowledgeable about everything and adept at using all web apps is quite valuable.