OOP in Javascript

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Is JavaScript an Object-oriented language? It uses objects and follows the principles of OOP, but it does this using pure functions, which is a property of the functional programming paradigm (FP). JavaScript follows both OOP and FP and is actually a procedural language.

What is OOP (Object-oriented Programming)?

OOP is a programming paradigm that believes in grouping data (properties) and methods (actions) together inside a box. It demonstrates the pattern of real-world objects.

Note: JavaScript is not an object-oriented language. Neither is it completely a functional language. JavaScript is a prototype-based procedural language. It supports both functional and object-oriented patterns of programming.

There are two types of OOP languages:

1. Class-Based languages like JAVA, C++.
2. Prototype-Based languages like JavaScript.

But what makes a language an OOP-based programming language?

There are four primary pillars of Object-Oriented Programming. Any piece of code following the OOP paradigm must adhere to these basic rules of Object-orientation.

Features of an Object oriented language

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) languages follow four main principles. Firstly, objects encapsulate data variables and methods, representing real-world entities. Classes act as blueprints for objects, defining their characteristics and actions. Encapsulation groups data and methods together, ensuring data security. Inheritance allows the classes to inherit all (based on type of inheritance) properties and methods from parent classes, promoting code reuse. Additionally, inheritance enables method overriding, where child classes can redefine inherited methods. OOP languages, like JavaScript, use constructor functions and prototypes instead of traditional classes. Understanding these principles facilitates the creation of organized, reusable, and secure code structures. For more explanation read our dedicated article here on Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

Is JavaScript Object-Oriented?

We need to understand the difference between OOP and Prototype-based programming, before finding the answer to this common question - ' Is JavaScript Object-oriented?'.

  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) The object-oriented paradigm keeps data and actions grouped together inside classes. In OOP, we create classes and then create their instances called objects.

  • Prototype-based Programming In Prototype-based programming, we derive objects from other already existing objects.

Prototype-based Programming

Note: Prototypes are the mechanism by which JavaScript objects inherit features from one another. --MDN Docs

JavaScript is a Prototype-based programming paradigm. It is not an OOP language. But it has support for it. It has the class keyword, which is just a syntactic sugar over prototypes. We actually create prototypes in javascript, and not classes. The class keyword is there to make javascript look like an OOP language.

Everything in JavaScript is an object. If you create an array, and then console it, you will find various key value pairs inside it, for example, you'll find the length property, which we never defined.

Prototype based programming paradigm

See, an array is also an object in JavaScript. Similarly, everything in JS is an object. Everything we define in javascript, be it an array, or a function, it extends the functionality from the prototype object.

Hence, JavaScript is a prototype-based language.

What is an Object in JavaScript?

As already explained, an object is a data structure containing properties and methods as key-value pairs in it. But how do we create one?

Let's see. There are three ways to create one. We'll be discussing each one of them in detail.

Using an Object Literal

We can simply create an object, by putting in the key value pairs for the object. The data variables can simply have a number, a string, an array or an object as its value. A data function has a functions as its value.

Let us take a look at an example:


This way of creating an object is hard-coded. What if we want to create objects for 100 users having the same three data members - first_name, last_name, and display_full_name? We'll have to write the whole object 100 times. So, what's better?

Note: this keyword is used to refer to the current object. To read more about this keyword, read this article for in-depth explanation.

Using an Object Constructor

We can create an object prototype and then create 100 instances for the same. Using Object Constructor is one way of doing this.

Let's see.


Using Object.create() Method

This is another method for creating objects. Simply create an object and create instances using the Object.create() method.

Let's see an example:


No Classes in JavaScript

JavaScript is a prototype-based language, and it doesn't have classes in it. We define the templates for objects using constructor functions or prototypes.

But JavaScript does have support for the class keyword. How can we say that classes cannot be created in JavaScript?

The keyword class in JavaScript is actually a syntactic sugar over the prototype-based inheritance, which is already present and supported in JavaScript. JS provides it so that the object creation aligns with other object-oriented languages where the creation of classes is supported.

ES6 Classes

Let's look at the ES6 way of defining classes, using the class keyword and then we'll see how classes were defined traditionally.

This way, we create a class using the class keyword. Define constructor function and all the other data functions inside the class declaration function. Then we create instances for this class using the new keyword.

Note: The new keyword binds the this keyword to the object. Hence, we should always create instances using the new keyword.

Traditional Way of Class Simulation

This is how classes were defined before JavaScript started supporting the class keyword. That is before ES6 came up.


Note: Clearly, the ES6 way of defining classes is a much easier and compact way for creating classes in JavaScript. Hence, we use the class keyword anytime we create classes now.

JavaScript Encapsulation

Encapsulation puts the data variables and the data functions together inside a box. Encapsulation ensures that data can only be accessed using the data functions defined inside the class, and abstraction ensures not anyone outside this encapsulated box can access it.

But, we already saw that there is no actual concept of classes in JavaScript. So, JavaScript implements encapsulation using two ways: Function Scope and Closures.

Let's discuss both of them with examples.

Function Scope

When we define a variable or a function inside the function, we can only access it from inside and not from outside the function. This can be one way of implementing abstraction. Look at the example below.

The output for this code snippet says the right message when accessed from inside but throws an error when accessed from outside. Hence, the message is encapsulated.

Function Scope


We can create a function inside a function, and the inner function will be able to access the local variable defined inside the outer function. This is called closure.

Note: A closure is created every time a function is declared.

Again, the output says that creating a closure helps encapsulate and restrict the data access only to inside the function.


JavaScript Inheritance

JavaScript lets objects inherit properties from parent objects or any other objects. It uses the concept of prototypal inheritance.


JavaScript is a prototype-based language. The objects created here can inherit the properties and methods from other objects or their parent ones.

Let's create an object and console it.


We only defined the property message to the messageObject, but we can see a lot of other methods. We didn't define them!

These methods are inherited from the parent object, i.e., the prototype for the object data structure. When we create the object messageObject, we basically inherit all the properties object data structure has and add a new one, i.e. message.

Prototype with message object

What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is a concept used in the object-oriented paradigm that enables us to use the same function in different forms. This reduces repetition and makes the code snippet useful in many different cases. Polymorphism is implemented in JavaScript by generic, overloading, and structural sub-typing. Let us see them all in detail.

Generics (Parametric Polymorphism)

Parametric Polymorphism is implemented to make our code more generic. More precisely, it makes our code independent of defining data types. A more generic code doesn't care about the types while still maintaining types-safety.

Let us see an example:

Let's create a function to concat two data structures. Now, applying parametric Polymorphism, this code should run for two lists, two strings, or any two types. This is the idea behind this type of Polymorphism.

This code runs for both arrays and strings. Hence, Polymorphism is implemented.


Overloading (ad-hoc polymorphism)

Overloading in JavaScript is achieved using ad-hoc Polymorphism. Functions created using ad-hoc polymorphism exhibit different behaviors based on different types of input values. For example:

  • + when used on integers and floats, exhibit the property of addition.
  • + when used with strings and array does concatenation.

Output is:

Structural Subtyping (Structural Polymorphism)

Consider Person and Student.

Clearly, Student is a sub-type of Person, and Person is a super-type of Student. All the operations that can be performed on the Person can also be applied to the Student, but the reverse is not valid. Structural subtyping is about defining relationships. A sub-type will always have all the properties of another type, plus some additional features.

JavaScript and OOP

A fundamental feature of OOPS in javascript is its capability to model a problem using real-life objects. To achieve that, we should be able to define real objects and define relationships among them using three principles:

  • Association
  • Aggregation
  • Composition

Let's elaborate on these three principles:

JavaScript objects support Association, Aggregation and Composition

JavaScript objects support


When two objects are unrelated and independent of each other, we define a relationship between them independent of any hierarchy. This means none of the objects is the child or parent of the other object, and the relation is called an association.

For example: In the case of a patient visiting a doctor, there is an independent relation. That doctor might be seeing multiple patients, and that patient can also be visiting multiple doctors simultaneously. None of them is a parent or a child. Hence, the relation is built through association.


There is an ownership in this type of relationship. It holds a parent/child relation. An essential property of this type of relationship is that the parent can live without the child object and vice versa. The child can also exist independently.

For example If an employee works for more than one department in a company, and anyone department gets deleted, the child, i.e., the employee, can still exist inside the company. Hence, this relationship exhibits aggregation.


Composition is a special type of aggregation. If the parent object dies, the child object also ceases to exist. To be more precise, the parent can exist without the child object, but vice versa is not true. The child cannot exist without its parent object.

How is JavaScript an OOP Language without Classes?

As already discussed, we do not create classes in JavaScript. Although we have the class keyword, it is just syntactic sugar over the prototype-based inheritance. Then how is OOPS in javascript implemented?

OOPS is not about creating classes! OOPS in javascript has its four main pillars explained above, and these four principle should be implemented using objects. In this prototype-based language, we use objects to implement encapsulation:

Hence, we simply create JavaScript objects and achieve the object-oriented programming paradigm principles. We do not need classes for implementing OOPS.


  • JavaScript is a prototype-based language. It has support for both Object-oriented and functional programming paradigm. It is not a complete OOP or FP.
  • We cannot create classes in javascript. We have the class keyword, but it is just syntactic sugar for the prototype-based inheritance.
  • Oops in JavaScript is based on four main pillars:
    • Objects
    • Classes
    • Encapsulation
    • Inheritance
  • Classes are blueprints for real objects, and objects are the instances of the classes/prototypes.
  • Encapsulation is binding data and actions together, and inheritance says we can inherit some properties from the parent objects and define new properties and actions inside the child object.
  • Polymorphism is a concept used in the oops in javascript that enables us to use the same function in different forms.