Difference Between Static and Dynamic Testing

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Overview

Static testing is a type of software testing where the software is reviewed without actually running it that is via code analysis, walkthroughs, examining the architecture of the code, etc. Dynamic testing on the other hand ensures that the output is obtained via running the functionality like in black box testing. Both these techniques are used to verify the product and its features and it's important to know the difference between static and dynamic testing.

Introduction to Testing

Software testing is a process to verify the product is bug-free. Software testing also involves validation where the product is made by market acceptance. Now, software testing is also done in three levels. Unit testing is where each module is tested by the developer himself. Integration testing where a software tester tests data flow between separate modules is correct. System testing is where the entire application is tested to ensure is defect-free.

Software testing is of two types functional testing and non-functional testing. Functional testing involves verifying the features listed by the client are all bug-free example login functionality, comment section, payment integration, etc. Non-functional testing involves ensuring the product is of quality which includes usability testing, performance testing, load testing, etc.

What is Static Testing?

Static testing is a software testing technique where the application is tested without running the code. Static testing is done in the earlier stages of product development to find errors. Static testing involves code reviews, walkthroughs, standardization of the code, and architecture design. The significance of static testing is to ensure the code quality. If the code is developed by the quality standards then most of the bugs can be fixed at early stages itself. Static testing involves white box testing techniques- flow diagram, statement coverage, and branch coverage.

Advantages

  1. Static testing is a cost-efficient way to enhance the quality of the product.
  2. Static testing verifies the product architecture and design quality.
  3. Static testing allows exploratory and ad-hoc testing techniques. It helps to easily test random modules.
  4. Static testing is also called non-execution testing or verification testing.

Examples

  1. Login module being tested via data flow testing where the reviewer validates all the case scenarios that have been covered by the developer. Instance there is Facebook authentication then if a user deactivates the account, or change password all have been handled in the application.
  2. Code reviews regarding system design. All coding standards of code reusability, and system design have been met. Memory and space complexities have been taken care of by the developer and would be verified here.

What is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing involves verifying that the functionality is working via running the application. Test cases are written to verify the outcome is correct. Dynamic testing can be both functional and non-functional. Dynamic testing is done at later stages when the product is developed. It is more time-consuming and costlier than static testing. Dynamic testing gives the confidence to the team that a quality product is developed.

Advantages

  1. Dynamic testing gives the development team and client that a defect-free product is coming into the market.
  2. Dynamic testing is done where execution is necessary like performance testing, load testing, and selenium testing.
  3. Dynamic testing is done at later stages where the user environment also plays a significant role.
  4. Dynamic testing is also called an Execution technique or validation testing.

Examples

  1. Performance testing is done using Jmeter of the website where the load and stress of different components are analyzed to ensure the system does not crash under high traffic.
  2. Selenium testing is done to find if all the links of the site are working or not as manually testing millions of links is not possible.

Key Difference Between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing

The main difference between static and dynamic testing is in the timing of evaluation. Static testing, often referred to as non-execution testing or verification testing, focuses on assessing the software without executing the code. It involves activities like code reviews, inspections, and code analysis, typically conducted at early stages of product development. In contrast, dynamic testing, also known as execution testing or validation testing, evaluates the software by executing the code. This type of testing, including functional and non-functional testing, takes place during the later stages of product development. Essentially, static testing aims to prevent defects by scrutinizing the software’s design and code, while dynamic testing aims to find and fix defects through actual code execution and testing.

Difference Between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing

The following is the difference between static and dynamic testing :

Static TestingDynamic Testing
Static testing is a software testing technique where the product is tested without executing the code.Dynamic testing is a software testing technique where the product is tested by executing the code.
Static testing is also called non-execution testing or verification testing.Dynamic testing is also called execution testing or validation testing.
Static testing includes code reviews, inspection and code analysis.Dynamic testing involves both functional and non-functional testing.
Static testing is done at the early stages of the product development.Dynamic testing is done at later stages of the product development.
Static testing is a cost-efficient way of software testing.Dynamic testing is comparatively expensive
Static testing is done by senior engineers and managers.Dynamic testing is done by software testers.
Static testing is done before the code deployment.Dynamic testing is done post-code deployment.
Static testing prevents bugs.Dynamic testing finds and fixes bugs.
Static testing includes a checklist and process to follow.Dynamic testing includes specific test cases to execute.
Static testing can be automated to a greater extent, enabling the use of various tools for code analysis and review.Dynamic testing typically requires human interaction and is less automated compared to static testing.
Tools commonly used in static testing include linters, code review tools, and static analysis tools.Dynamic testing relies on various testing types, such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing.

Conclusion

In this, we learned about the difference between static and dynamic testing and the following points:

  1. Static testing involves testing the application without code execution via code reviews and inspection.
  2. Dynamic testing involves testing the application via code execution.
  3. Static testing is done at earlier stages of product development whereas dynamic testing is done at later stages.
  4. Static testing is cheaper and helps to find and fix bugs early. Dynamic testing tests the application post-product deployment.
  5. Static testing is also called verification testing and dynamic testing as validation testing.