Operating System Tutorial
The Operating System Tutorial is divided into various parts based on its functions such as Process Management, Process Synchronization, Deadlocks and File Management.
What is an Operating System?
In the Computer System (comprises Hardware and software), Hardware can only understand machine code (in the form of 0 and 1) which doesn't make any sense to a naive user.
We need a system that can act as an intermediary and manage all the processes and resources present in the system.
An Operating System can be defined as an interface between user and hardware. It is responsible for the execution of all the processes, Resource Allocation, CPU management, File Management and many other tasks.
History of Operating System
The operating system is a system program that serves as an interface between the computing system and the end-user. Operating systems create an environment where the user can run any programs or communicate with software or applications in a comfortable and well-organized way.
Furthermore, an operating system is a software program that manages and controls the execution of application programs, software resources and computer hardware. It also helps manage the software/hardware resources, such as file management, memory management, input/ output and many peripheral devices like a disk drive, printers, etc.
Examples of Operating System
- Laptops, tablets, and desktop computers all run operating systems that you've probably heard of. Some examples include versions of Microsoft Windows (like Windows 11, Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7), Apple's macOS (formerly OS X), Chrome OS, and various Unix and Linux distribution lists.
- Your smartphone runs a mobile operating system, probably either Apple's iOS or Google's Android.
- Servers, like those that host the websites you visit or serve the videos you watch, typically run specialized operating systems. Some examples include Windows Server, Linux, and FreeBSD.
Functions of Operating system
Important functions of an operating System:
Security – The operating system uses password protection to protect user data and similar other techniques. it also prevents unauthorized access to programs and user data.
Control over system performance – Monitors overall system health to help improve performance. records the response time between service requests and system response to have a complete view of the system health.
Job accounting – Operating system Keeps track of time and resources used by various tasks and users, this information can be used to track resource usage for a particular user or group of users.
Error detecting aids
The operating system constantly monitors the system to detect errors and avoid the malfunctioning of a computer system.
The operating system manages the Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is made up of a large array of bytes or words where each byte or word is assigned a certain address. Main memory is fast storage and it can be accessed directly by the CPU.
Processor Management – In a multiprogramming environment, the OS decides the order in which processes have access to the processor, and how much processing time each process has.
An OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. It performs the following activities for device management. Keeps track of all devices connected to the system.
A file system is organized into directories for efficient or easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain other directories and other types of files. Features of Operating System
Protected and supervisor mode
- Allows disk access and file systems Device drivers Networking Security.
- Program Execution.
- Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking.
- Handling I/O operations.
- Manipulation of the file system.
- Error Detection and handling.
- Resource allocation.
Advantages of Operating System
- User Friendly. The interface provided by the GUI is much more user friendly compared to a command-line interface
- Security. It is a responsibility of an operating system to make sure each data present inside them is secure
- Sharing Resources
- Hardware Accessibility
Disadvantages of Operating System
- Cost - Unless it is an open-source operating system, generally all other platforms are considered to be expensive.
- Reliability - An operating system is a vital software for any computer
- Virus Attacks
Career Opportunity of Learning Operating System
- Operating Systems Specialist
- Operating Systems Programmer
- IT Administrator